AbstractThis research studied the effects of the addition of ground granulated blast furnace slag (ggbs), activated by 2% calcium hydroxide (Ca(OHh, on the strength, permeability and porosity development of a laboratory prepared clay mix (kaolinite with and without 6% gypsum) and a natural sulphide-bearing clay soil, Lower Oxford Clay. Based on shear, compressive and indirect tensile strength testing, it was found that an increase in the stabiliser slag/lime ratio results in substantial strength increase even after short curing periods (up to 12 weeks). This increase in strength is more pronounced if curing is at elevated temperatures (30 °C). The presence of sulphates (6% gypsum=2.73% SO3) resulted in an accelerated increase in the strength development for stabilised kaolinite, which was comparable to that of stabilised Lower Oxford Clay. In the absence of sulphates, large ggbs additions were only activated effectively at higher curing temperatures (20 and 30 °C) after curing periods of 24 weeks and beyond, although it is suggested that 2% lime creates a sufficiently alkaline environment for activation. The degree of slag activation and thus the subsequent cementation process was reflected by an increase in the percentage of the pore volume occupied by pores with a radius ::s;0.0Sµm, which is usually associated with the pore fraction characteristic of cementitious gels. The increase in slag addition, for kaolinite mixes, was accompanied by a reduction in total porosity. Specimens made from Lower Oxford Clay exhibited a significant increase in pore volume at higher slag additions. This is interpreted as being due to the creation of pore space resulting from restrained shrinkage of gels by inert particles during drying in this coarser, natural clay. No significant trend in the effect of curing temperature on the pore size distribution could be identified from the data.
The development of permeability, however, showed some sensitivity to curing temperature. Results from specimens cured at 20 and 30 °C showed an accelerated reduction in their k-values in comparison to samples which had been cured at 10 °C. However, little correlation between measured permeability and exhibited pore size distribution could be established which is believed to be due to the strong influence of shrinkage during drying prior to mercury intrusion porosimetry in the dimensionally semi-stable soil system.
The volume stability of stabilised specimens during frost action was assessed in a series of 12 freeze-thaw cycles, which were carried out in accordance to the German proposal for a European Pre-Standard. Generally an increase in the curing period prior to frost action and higher overall sample porosity resulted in relatively better performance during frost action.
The influence of the slag/lime and slag/gypsum ratio on the swelling potential upon soaking was assessed in long-term soaking tests and the underlying causes were identified by findings from microstructural investigations including SEM and TG analysis. These results contributed to a better understanding of the slag activation process. In an alkaline environment slag hydration appears to be triggered earlier by sulphate, due to the more intensive disturbance of a thin protective layer of cementitious products on the slag grains. Disruption of this layer, for example by ettringite formation, exposes more unreacted slag grain surface, which will subsequently start to hydrate.
Findings were complemented by two case studies, one which investigated the cause of substantial heave on a German highway on a microscale and the other which assessed the technical performance and the economic implications of a full-scale trial utilising the stabilisation technique with lime and ggbs for a temporary diversion. The overall findings from the projects indicate that soil stabilisation with lime and ggbs is, particularly for soils with significant sulphate/sulphide content, a feasible and environmentally friendly alternative to the classic soil stabilisation methods.
|Date of Award
|Roderick Robinson (Supervisor)