AbstractAmcan y gwaith hwn yw datblygu a gwerthuso cwrs ail iaith ar gyfer athrawon babanod i gwrdd a gofynion y Cwricwlwm Cenedlaethol. Rhagwelwyd y byddai angen i'r Awdurdodau Addysg hyfforddi a chynnal cyrsiau dysgu Cymraeg i athrawon di-Gymraeg neu brin eu Cymraeg er mwyn cael cyflenwad digonol o athrawon. Datblygwyd y cwrs sy'n rhan o'r traethawd hwn i gwrdd ag anghenion yr athrawon hynny a fyddai'n barod i gael eu hyfforddi i ddysgu'r iaith a'I chyflwyno fel ail iaith i blant yn eu dosbarth. Cyn dechrau datblygu cwrs gwnaethpwyd arolwg o'r cyrsiau a ddefnyddid
gan yr Awdurdodau Addysg ar gyfer athrawon tebyg. Sylweddolwyd nad oedd y cyrsiau a'r deunyddiau a oedd yn bodoli yn Haf 1989 yn adlewyrchu gofynion ac anghenion y Cwricwlwm. Disgwylid i unrhyw gwrs a ddatblygid i hyfforddi athrawon ar gyfer dysgu Cymraeg yng Nghyfnod Allweddol 1, gyfuno elfennau iaith a methodoleg.
Yn y traethawd hwn rhoir braslun o ofynion y Cwricwlwm a gwneir arolwg o ddamcaniaethau a dulliau dysgu ail iaith gan ganolbwyntio ar waith Cyngor Ewrop, yn arbennig y Lefel Drothwy. Trafodir yr egwyddorion a ystyrir yn bwysig gan arbenigwyr iaith a cheisiwyd eu cadw mewn cof wrth ddatblygu'r cwrs newydd. Seilir y cwrs ar y dull cyfathrebol gan fod ei nodweddion yn cydweddu a gofynion Cymraeg, Ail Iaith yn y Cwricwlwm Cenedlaethol. Mabwysiedir nodweddion y dull fel amcanion cyffredinol a pherthnasol a defnyddir fframwaith tebyg i'r Lefel Drothwy fel y'i hargymhellir ar gyfer ysgolion. Disgrifir y cwrs yn fanwl yn Rhan 1 a gwelir y cynnwys yn Rhan 2. Yn olaf, trafodir gwerth arfarnu ac asesu wrth ddysgu iaith a'r pwysigrwydd o ddewis dulliau asesu addas sy'n ategu amcanion y rhaglen ddysgu. Ceisir arfarnu gwerth a pherthnasedd y cwrs ar 61 ei dreialu mewn cwrs peilot ac eglurir sut yr aseswyd cymhwyster cyfathrebol y dysgwyr. Dengys sylwadau'r hyfforddwyr a'r dysgwyr fod amcanion a nodau'r cwrs yn berthnasol i'w hanghenion ac mai diffyg pennaf y cwrs peilot oedd prinder amser a'r ffaith iddo gael ei gywasgu i gyfnod byr.
The aim of this work is to develop and evaluate a second language course for infant teachers which will enable them to teach Welsh within the National Curriculum. It was recognized that more Welsh teachers were needed and that the availability of properly trained personnel was critical to the implementation of the National Curriculum in Wales. This course attempts to meet that challenge; it targets those teachers who have no knowledge of Welsh or who lack fluency in the language.
The work commences with an analysis of the demands of the National Curriculum and a description of its components with particular reference to the subject Welsh - Second Language.
The first step was to survey courses used by Local Authorities before the implementation of the National Curriculum. At that time (1989) none of the courses reviewed met all the requirements of the Curriculum. It appeared that any new course developed to train teachers of Welsh as a second language, would be required to impart simultaneously both linguistic knowledge and teaching methodology.
In the second chapter (Part 1), relevant literature describing the current theory in the fields of second language learning and acquisition, is reviewed and analysed. Particular attention is paid to the work of the Council of Europe and the communicative method. The way people of different ages and ability learn a language, how they can be encouraged to continue with their study and how tutors can improve their techniques, is discussed thoroughly. Motivation on the part of learners, relevance of the course, interactive methods, realistic and purposeful tasks, variety, flexibility and real communication, are shown to be key elements in successful language learning and acquisition. The communicative approach advocated by the Council of Europe, embodies a variety of techniques and methods, promotes real communication and is not prescriptive. It appears that the greatest weakness of some of the methodology described, is the belief that one can succeed in teaching and learning a language using one method alone.
The content of the second language course which was developed is outlined in Chapter 3. An attempt was made to incorporate the principles described above in the new course, the development and piloting of which were sponsored by the Welsh Office. The target group comprised infant teachers from the six South Wales counties and in creating materials the needs of adult learners, as well as the children in their class, were taken into consideration. The course was seen as a part of In-service Training and, as such, was expected to provide a model for the teachers' own work with children. In view of this, it was decided to use the communicative approach as it is learner-centred and would mirror the interactive teaching styles of the infant classroom. A communicative approach would also enable the learners / teachers to use and apply their knowledge of teaching, learning and classroom procedures while learning a new language. In the National Curriculum, it is emphasized that one of the most important purposes of learning a language is to communicate and that it is essential to plan and provide different experiences and situations to ensure that learners use language purposefully. The Threshold Level of the Council of Europe was adopted as a framework. This Level provides a minimum level of proficiency and, as the length of the pilot course was limited to a hundred hours through constraints of funding and other practical problems, it was deemed that this would be the appropriate level for the target group.
In the last chapter, (Part 1), the desirability of evaluation and the importance of choosing appropriate modes of assessment when learning a language, are discussed. In addition, an attempt is made to evaluate the content, the relevance and effectiveness of the course and the communicative competence of the learners at the end of the pilot stage. The comments of the teachers / learners on the value of the course and its effectiveness are recorded in Appendix 2, Part 1.
Part 2 includes the second language course which is entitled, CYNLLUN Y SIROEDD. It comprises four parts: (i) Section A - Content of the course; (ii) Section B - Language for classroom management or incidental language; (iii) Section C - Bibliography where appropriate resources as well as books are noted and (iv) Section Ch - 2 video cassettes developed by the two course tutors for the purpose of assessment and evaluation. The themes, functions and notions found in the eight units of Section A reflect those identified in the Threshold Level. Each unit is divided into two parts, the first containing linguistic activities for the learners / teachers and the second part containing suggestions for appropriate activities to develop the language with children in their class. Cross-curricular activities are included in order to meet the targets of the National Curriculum. Each unit contains a section entitled ‘Important Points' which explains certain aspects of grammar and also a self-assessment Progress Card' which can be used by adult learners and children.
The pilot course was held in September 1989 and was conducted by two experienced teachers / tutors who had wide experience both in primary school education and in teaching Welsh to adults. Thirteen teachers from six of the Welsh counties attended the one hundred hour course. Class-contact time was spread over ten weeks and included attendance on two weekends. Between each learning and training session, the teachers were expected to introduce the target language to their pupils and were given tasks to complete before the following session. The Pilot Course material was presented in folder form so that the participants could include ideas that they themselves had developed whilst using the course with their own pupils. Using a folder greatly facilitated changing the order of sections of units according to the communicative needs of the learners. The feedback received from those participating in the Pilot Course was used to evaluate its content and effectiveness. The main thrust of their comments was that the content and methodology were relevant and effective but that the course should have been longer. It was also, suggested that the hundred hours could have been more effectively utilized had they been spread over two terms or more.
|Date of Award||Sep 1992|
- Welsh language
- Study and teaching