AbstractActive and Fast Tunable Plasmonic Metamaterials is a research development that has contributed to studying the interaction between light and matter, specifically focusing on the interaction between the electromagnetic field and free electrons in metals. This interaction can be stimulated by the electric component of light, leading to collective oscillations. In the field of nanotechnology, these phenomena have garnered significant interest due to their ability to enable the transmission of both optical signals and electric currents through the same thin metal structure. This presents an opportunity to connect the combined advantages of photonics and electronics within a single platform. This innovation gives rise to a new subfield of photonics known as plasmonic metamaterials.
Plasmonic metamaterials are artificial engineering materials whose optical properties can be engineered to generate the desired response to an incident electromagnetic wave. They consist of subwavelength-scale structures which can be understood as the atoms in conventional materials. The collective response of a randomly or periodically ordered ensemble of such meta-atoms defines the properties of the metamaterials, which can be described in terms of parameters such as permittivity, permeability, refractive index, and impedance. At the interface between noble metal particles and dielectric media, collective oscillations of the free electrons in the metal particles can be resonantly excited, known as plasmon resonances. This work considered two plasmon resonances: localised surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) and
propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs).
The investigated plasmonic metamaterials, designed with specific structures, were considered for use in various applications, including telecommunications, information processing, sensing, industry, lighting, photovoltaic, metrology, and healthcare. The sample structures are manufactured using metal and dielectric materials as artificial composite materials. It can be used in the electromagnetic spectrum's visible and near-infrared wavelength range. Results obtained proved that artificial composite material can produce a thermal coherent emission at the mid-infrared wavelength range and enable active and fast-tunable optoelectronic devices. Therefore, this work focused on the integrated thermal infrared light source platforms for various applications such as thermal analysis, imaging, security, biosensing, and medical diagnosis. Enabled by Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation, this work combined the concepts of material absorption with material emission. Hence, the results obtained proved that this approach enhances the overall performance of the active and fast-tunable plasmonic metamaterial in terms of with effortless and fast tunability. This work further considers the narrow line width of the coherent thermal emission, tunable emission, and angular tunable emission at the mid-infrared, which are achieved through plasmonic stacked grating structure (PSGs) and plasmonic infrared absorber structure (PIRAs).
Three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic stacked gratings (PSGs) was used to create a tunable plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelengths ranging from 3 m to 6 m, and from 6m to 9 m. These PSGs are made of a metallic grating with corrugations caused by narrow air openings, followed by a Bragg grating (BG). Additionally, this work demonstrated a thermal radiation source customised for the mid-infrared wavelength range of 3 μm to 5 μm. This source exhibits intriguing characteristics such as high emissivity, narrowband spectra, and sharp angular response capabilities. The proposed thermal emitter consists of a two-dimensional (2D) metallic grating on top of a one-dimensional dielectric BG.
Results obtained presented a plasmonic infrared absorber (PIRA) graphene nanostructure designed for a wavelength range of 3 to 14 μm. It was observed and concluded that this wavelength range offers excellent opportunities for detection, especially when targeting gas molecules in the infrared atmospheric windows. The design framework is based on active plasmon control for subwavelength-scale infrared absorbers within the mid-infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Furthermore, this design is useful for applications such as infrared microbolometers, infrared photodetectors, and photovoltaic cells.
Finally, the observation and conclusion drawn for the sample of nanostructure used in this work, which consists of an artificial composite arrangement with plasmonic material, can contribute to a highly efficient mid-infrared light source with low power consumption, fast response emissions, and is a cost-effective structure.
|Date of Award
|Nigel Copner (Supervisor) & Kang Li (Supervisor)