Who said “there is no ‘I’ in team”? The effects of observational learning content level on efficacy beliefs in groups

Adam Bruton, David Shearer, Stephen Mellalieu

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    Abstract

    Objectives
    To investigate the effects of individual-level observational learning (OLINDV), team-level observational learning (OLTEAM), and multi-level observational learning (OLMULTI) on efficacy beliefs, task cohesion, and performance across three studies in sports teams.

    Design
    Cross-sectional, experimental and single-case designs were employed across the three studies, respectively.

    Method
    Study 1 used a cross-sectional design to explore the predictive relationship between OLINDV and OLTEAM use, and collective efficacy and task cohesion in 210 team sports athletes. Study 2 used a repeated-measures experimental design to compare effects of OLINDV versus OLTEAM interventions on collective and self-efficacy in two soccer teams. Study 3 used a single-case A-A-B-B design to assess the effectiveness of OLMULTI interventions on self-efficacy, collective efficacy, task cohesion and performance in an elite age-grade rugby union team across a competitive season.

    Results
    In study 1, both OLINDV and OLTEAM use predicted collective efficacy, but only OLTEAM use predicted task dimensions of cohesion. In study 2, collective efficacy increased for both the OLINDV and OLTEAM interventions while self-efficacy increased only for the OLINDV intervention. In study 3, visual and effect size analyses indicated increased self-efficacy, collective efficacy task cohesion, and performance for the team during the off- and in-season intervention phases where the OLMULTI interventions were administered alongside usual sporting involvement (training sessions and/or competitive fixtures).

    Conclusions
    The novel findings of this investigation show that OLINDV, OLTEAM and OLMULTI interventions can enhance efficacy beliefs in practical contexts and warrant application in groups across domains.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number101563
    Number of pages11
    JournalPsychology of Sport and Exercise
    Volume45
    Early online date13 Jul 2019
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2019

    Keywords

    • sports teams
    • Applied interventions
    • Multi-level observational learning
    • Efficacy beliefs
    • Multi-study

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