Uptake of diabetes follow-up checks by minority community groups: a rapid review of the evidence for the CYMELL study

Llinos Haf Spencer, Mohammed Albustami, Alison Porter, Gargi Naha, Rebecca L. Thomas, Sian Rees, Rose Stewart, Thanuja Hettiarachchi, Nicola O'Brien, Rhiannon Tudor Edwards, Ashra Khanom

Research output: Contribution to journalConference or Meeting Abstractpeer-review


BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a public health priority for the UK. A growing body of evidence has indicated ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in rates of diabetes prevalence and complications. Attendance at diabetes follow-up checks is key to ensuring complications are identified and managed at an early stage. The aim of this rapid review was to identify and summarise evidence of ways to improve diabetes management in ethnic minority groups.

METHODS: In this rapid review, we searched PubMed, PsycInfo, and CINAHL for studies published in English between Jan 1, 2000, and Jan 31, 2023. Studies were included if the population was from ethnic minority groups and if the intervention was community-based and aimed to improve diabetes self-care. The comparisons were persuasion and behaviour change, and the outcomes were improved diabetes self-management including, glycaemic control, attending eye tests, kidney, and foot screening follow-up checks. This study is registered with PROSPERO 2023, CRD42023399283.

FINDINGS: Nine studies were included, from Mexico (n=1), USA (n=7), and UK (n=1). Most studies reported on community engagement (n=8), and one focussed on peer support and diabetes self-management. Peer support and diabetes self-management education were found to significantly improve diabetes control in a Mayan community (n=29) in Mexico (p<0·0001) and in the Korean American (n=105), African American (n=107), and Latino American (n=56) communities in the USA. Another study showed that women from the Pakistani community in England also benefitted from a culturally appropriate and socially supportive environment when learning about diabetes self-management. Diabetic eye screening rates could be increased through education but not through incentive payments.

INTERPRETATION: Culturally competent health-care policies and programmes have been shown to increase diabetes self-management including uptake of diabetes screening for people with diabetes from ethnic minority communities to avoid potential harmful and life limiting conditions. A strength of this review is that robust, recent, and relevant papers regarding self-management of diabetes were included. The main limitations were that none of the nine studies included any cost analyses, and only one UK-based study was included, indicating that further research is required to fill the evidence gap.

FUNDING: Research for Patient and Public Benefit (RfPPB), Health and Care Research Wales.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S86
Number of pages1
JournalThe Lancet
Issue numberSupplement 1
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Humans
  • Female
  • Minority Groups
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology
  • Ethnicity
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Health Behavior


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