The Development of Stabilised Clay-Hemp Building Material for Sustainability and Low Carbon Use

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This paper reports on stabilised clay-hemp building material for sustainability and low carbon use. Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS) was used as a partial substitute for conventional stabiliser (lime or Portland cement) to stabilise Lower Oxford Clay (LOC) incorporating industrial hemp. The development of stabilised clay-hemp building material is expected to underpin the potential of commercial production of non-fired stabilised hemp walls, hemp blocks and hemp bricks, with a potential to offer an environmentally friendly alternative to traditional concrete, fired clay bricks and cement bricks. The parameters considered in this study are: material characterisation, unconfined compressive strength, linear expansion and cost. The 50-day linear expansion results for the test specimens showed that the maximum overall expansion rate for all the stabilised mixtures was 2%. The expansion behaviour of all stabilised clay-hemp material was significantly reduced with the presence of GGBS. The cost analysis results showed that the stabilised clay-hemp material manufactured with lime – GGBS system had the lowest net present value.
Original languageEnglish
Article number448
Pages (from-to)205-214
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Civil Engineering and Construction
Issue number4
Early online date5 Oct 2020
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2020


  • Clay masonry
  • Industrial hemp
  • Stabilised bricks
  • Linear expansion
  • Compressive strength


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