The development of a consensus‐based spiritual care education standard for undergraduate nursing and midwifery students: An educational mixed methods study

René Leeuwen, Josephine Attard, Linda Ross, Adam Boughey, Tove Giske, Tormod Kleiven, Wilfred Mcsherry

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Abstract

Aims: The aim of this study was to develop a consensus-based Spiritual Care Education Standard for undergraduate N/M students to use in undergraduate programmes. Design: Mixed methods were used consisting of qualitative and quantitative methods based on the principles of Delphi research. Methods: The sample consisted of a total of 58 (N = 58) participants from 21 European countries. Data collection was conducted from June 2017 - February 2019 and took place in facilitated iterative action learning cycles and online surveys. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis. Consensus was stated by >90% agreement. Results: The process resulted in an EPICC Spiritual Care Education Standard consisting of the following four spiritual care competences: Intrapersonal spirituality, Interpersonal spirituality, Spiritual care: assessment and planning, Spiritual care: intervention and evaluation. For every competence, learning outcomes were described in knowledge, skills and attitudes. Conclusion: This Standard guides N/M spiritual care education, student assessment and research. It can be the starting point for discussing spiritual care competences in other healthcare professions. Follow-up research should focus on implementation of the standard and on assessment of students’ spiritual competence. Impact: The Standard guides curriculum and programme development. The Standard guides students in performing their learning process. The Standard provides a frame of reference for policy making and follow-up research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)973–986
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Advanced Nursing
Volume77
Issue number2
Early online date30 Oct 2020
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Jan 2021

Keywords

  • competences
  • consensus
  • education
  • international
  • learning outcomes
  • midwifery
  • nursing
  • pre-registration
  • spiritual care
  • standard

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