The Challenges Arising in the Evolution of the Triple Helix Institutional System

Azley Abd Razak, Mohammed Saad

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


    Malaysia’s first formal science and technology policy was introduced in 1986 (National Science and Technology Policy II 2000–2010 [NSTPII] 2000). One of the major programs of this policy was the provision of greater opportunities for interactions between industry and public research institutions. Its aim was to increase economic development at a national level in tandem with support for Malaysia’s industrialization program. Since its inception, the government has been proactive in seeking industry collaboration and cooperating in enhancing several economic and industrialization programs. For instance, a greater focus on research and development (R&D) projects that involve industry has been refl ective of this new policy implementation (NSTPII 2000). The policy was originally formulated by the Malaysian National Scientifi c and Research Council, membership of which consists of both government and industry representatives (NSTPII 2000).
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationTheory and Practice of Triple Helix Model in Developing Countries
    Subtitle of host publicationIssues and Challenges
    EditorsMohammed Saad, Girma Zawdie
    PublisherTaylor & Francis
    ISBN (Electronic)9780203838211
    ISBN (Print)9780415475167
    Publication statusPublished - 2011


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