Although a considerable number of studies have indicated that the rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) are high, no systematic review has been undertaken to explore the strength and patterns of the relationship between suicidality and BDD. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis which aimed to examine the association between BDD and suicidality and the mechanisms underlying suicidality in BDD. Searches of five bibliographic databases including Medline, PsychINFO, Embase, Web of Science and CINAHL, were conducted from inception to June 2015. Seventeen studies were included in the review. Meta-analyses were performed using random effect models to account for the high levels of heterogeneity in the data. A positive and statistically significant association was found between BDD and suicidality (OR = 3.63, 95% Cl = 2.62 to 4.63). Subgroup analyses showed that BDD was associated with increased odds for both, suicide attempts (OR = 330, 95% CI = 2.18 to 4.43) and suicidal ideation (OR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.44 to 3.69). The evidence concerning suicide deaths in BDD was scarce. BDD-specific factors and comorbid diagnoses of Axis I disorders were likely to worsen suicidality in BDD. However, the modest number, and the low methodological quality, of the studies included in this review suggest caution the interpretation of these findings. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER
- MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER
- POPULATION-BASED SURVEY
- ANXIETY DISORDERS