Spatial and temporal access to warm spaces during the winter of 2022/2023

Andrew Price, Gary Higgs*, Mitchel Langford

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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It is estimated that over half a million people visited one network of ‘warm rooms’ during the winter of 2022 in the UK, a figure that may rise to 2.5 million people if other networks are considered. As well as offering a means to try to limit exposure to cold temperatures and reduce household energy costs, these winter warm hubs also address wider concerns such as social isolation, loneliness and mental well-being as the cost-of-living bites. This graphic demonstrates how geospatial approaches can be used to explore access via public transport and walking to a network of warm spaces in the capital city of Cardiff, Wales. By accounting for site opening times in relation to existing bus timetables for those for whom walking may not be an option, we illustrate how such information can be included in three commonly applied access measures (floating catchment area, cumulative opportunity and shortest distance) to highlight potential spatio-temporal gaps in provision across the city.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2317-2321
Number of pages5
JournalEnvironment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
Issue number8
Early online date31 Aug 2023
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023


  • warm spaces
  • Public transport/walking
  • geographical availability


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