Seasonal variations of cell site diversity gain

Sharmini Enoch, Ifiok Otung

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The broadband fixed wireless access (BFWA) systems operate in microwave frequencies. In this frequency range, the wave propagation is highly influenced by precipitation caused especially by rain. With the use of cell site diversity (CSD), the rain attenuation effects can be mitigated. When the signal level falls below a certain threshold the subscriber station switches to another base station within the coverage area. This paper aims at demonstrating the performance improvements obtained with the use of cell site diversity during various seasons for measurements carried out from HYREX rain gauge network in UK. The parameters traditionally used to quantify cell site diversity are CSD gain and diversity improvement. This paper analyzes the CSD gain achieved. The gain increases with increasing frequency and distance. The link performance is compared for various seasons and the results show that the maximum attenuation occurs during summer, while the least attenuation occurs during winter. Therefore, maximum gain of up to 22 dB occurs at 54 GHz frequency during winter. The second observation is that when the angular separation between the diversity sites is 180° separation there is maximum gain for all seasons.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1861-1870
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Engineering and Technology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2016


  • Cell site diversity
  • Diversity improvement
  • Fade mitigation
  • WiMAX


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