New Findings: What is the topic of this review? The manuscript collectively combines the experimental observations from >100 publications focusing on the regulation of cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise from 1945 to the present day. What advances does it highlight? This article highlights the importance of traditional and historical assessments of cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise, as well as traditional and new insights into the complex factors involved in the integrative regulation of brain blood flow and metabolism during exercise. The overarching theme is the importance of quantifying cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise using techniques that consider multiple volumetric cerebral haemodynamics (i.e. velocity, diameter, shear and flow). Cerebral function in humans is crucially dependent upon continuous oxygen delivery, metabolic nutrients and active regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF). As a consequence, cerebrovascular function is precisely titrated by multiple physiological mechanisms, characterized by complex integration, synergism and protective redundancy. At rest, adequate CBF is regulated through reflexive responses in the following order of regulatory importance: fluctuating arterial blood gases (in particularly, partial pressure of carbon dioxide), cerebral metabolism, arterial blood pressure, neurogenic activity and cardiac output. Unfortunately, the magnitude that these integrative and synergistic relationships contribute to governing the CBF during exercise remains unclear. Despite some evidence indicating that CBF regulation during exercise is dependent on the changes of blood pressure, neurogenic activity and cardiac output, their role as a primary governor of the CBF response to exercise remains controversial. In contrast, the balance between the partial pressure of carbon dioxide and cerebral metabolism continues to gain empirical support as the primary contributor to the intensity-dependent changes in CBF observed during submaximal, moderate and maximal exercise. The goal of this review is to summarize the fundamental physiology and mechanisms involved in regulation of CBF and metabolism during exercise. The clinical implications of a better understanding of CBF during exercise and new research directions are also outlined.
|Number of pages||16|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Nov 2017|
- Cerebral Blood Flow
- Cerebral Metabolism
- Cerebral Oxygen Delivery