Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface-Enabled Physical-Layer Network Coding for Higher Order M-QAM Signals

Ehsan Atefat Doost*, Firooz B. Saghezchi*, Pablo Fondo-Ferreiro, Felipe Gil-Castiñeira, Maria Papaioannou, John Vardakas, Jinwara Surattanagul, Jonathan Rodriguez

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


Physical-Layer Network Coding (PNC) is an effective technique to improve the throughput and latency in wireless networks. However, there are two major challenges for PNC, especially when using higher order modulations: 1) phase synchronization and power control at the paired User Equipments (UEs); and 2) the ambiguity removal of the PNC mapping at the relay node. To address these challenges, in this paper, we apply power control at transmitting UEs and exploit Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RISs) to synchronize the phase of the transmitted signals and ensure that they arrive at the relay with the same power and phase rotation. Then, we employ modular addition for an unambiguous PNC mapping for M-ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulations (M-QAM). We evaluate the performance of the system in the framework of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)-PNC for different RIS sizes and modulation orders. Furthermore, we study the sensitivity of PNC systems for Channel Estimation Error (CEE). The results reveal that 1) PNC systems show quite higher sensitivity to CEE compared with RIS-assisted one-way relay channel systems; 2) when the CEE is low, RIS can considerably enhance the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of the PNC system, e.g., for a Bit Error Rate (BER) of 10-3 (without channel coding), increasing the RIS size from one to 256 elements in 28 GHz band leads to 200% improvement in SNR.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationGLOBECOM 2023 - 2023 IEEE Global Communications Conference
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9798350310900
Publication statusPublished - 26 Feb 2024
Event2023 IEEE Global Communications Conference, GLOBECOM 2023 - Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Duration: 4 Dec 20238 Dec 2023

Publication series

NameProceedings - IEEE Global Communications Conference, GLOBECOM
ISSN (Print)2334-0983
ISSN (Electronic)2576-6813


Conference2023 IEEE Global Communications Conference, GLOBECOM 2023
CityKuala Lumpur


  • Ambiguity Removal
  • Channel Estimation Error
  • Phase Synchronization
  • Physical-Layer Network Coding
  • Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
  • Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface


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