Mixed Phosphite/N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Studies

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A series of mixed P(OR)3/NHC Pd complexes was synthesized and fully characterized. The steric properties of both types of ligands were computationally determined using X-ray data. These structural studies clearly show that N-heterocyclic carbenes modulate their bulkiness with respect to the steric requirements of the coligands. Catalytic studies were performed using this new class of complexes for the Suzuki−Miyaura reaction. It was found that alkoxide or hydroxide bases and/or alcohols were necessary to achieve good catalytic activity. Mechanistic studies were undertaken in order to gain insights into the role of alkoxide groups. These studies suggest that alcohols or alkoxide groups play a major role in the activation of the precatalyst to generate the catalytically active species. Catalytic studies proved these systems to be efficient using 0.1 mol % of Pd loading for the coupling of aryl, benzyl, and heterocyclic chlorides with boronic acids.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1443–1450
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2010


  • NHC
  • carbenes
  • transition metals


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