A life cycle assessment has been completed of potential biogas infrastructures on a regional scale. Centralised and distributed infrastructures were considered along with biogas end uses of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) and injection to the gas grid for either transport fuel or domestic heating end uses. Damage orientated (endpoint) life cycle impact assessment method identified that CHP with 80% heat utilisation had the least environmental impact, followed by transport fuel use. Utilisation for domestic heating purposes via the gas grid was found to perform less well. A 32% difference in transportation requirement between the centralised and distributed infrastructures was found to have a relatively small effect on the overall environmental impact. Global warming impacts were significantly affected by changes in methane emissions at upgrading stage, highlighting the importance of minimising operational losses.
- transport fuel