This paper investigates advanced energy-efficient wireless systems in orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) downlink networks using coordinated multipoint (CoMP) transmissions between the base stations (BSs) in a heterogeneous network (HetNet), which is adopted by Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long-Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced to meet International Mobile Telecommunications-Advanced targets. HetNet CoMP has received significant attention as a way of achieving spectral efficiency (SE) and energy efficiency (EE). Usually, in the literature, the total network power consumption is restricted to the sum of the power consumption of all BSs. The significance of the power consumption of the backhaul links in wireless networks is normally omitted for its trivial effect with respect to that of the radio BSs. For SE and EE analysis of HetNet CoMP, the energy and bandwidth consumption of the backhaul is considered, without which, the investigation remains incomplete. However, SE and EE are design criteria in conflict with each other, and a careful study of their tradeoff is mandatory for designing future wireless communication systems. The EE is measured as “throughput (bits) per joule,” whereas the power consumption model includes RF transmit (radiated), circuit, and backhaul power. Furthermore, a nonideal backhaul model such as a microwave link is also investigated within intra-HetNet-CoMP (inside one cell), where an implementing fiber is not feasible. An intercell interference (ICI) coordination method is also studied to mitigate ICI. At the end, a novel resource allocation algorithm is proposed-modeled as an optimization problem - which takes into account the total power consumption, including radiated, circuit, and backhaul power, and the minimum required data rate to maximize EE. Given an SE requirement, the EE optimization problem is formulated as a constrained optimization problem. The considered optimization problem is transformed into a convex optimization problem by redefining the constraint using cubic inequality, which results in an efficient iterative resource allocation algorithm. In each iteration, the transformed problem is solved by using dual decomposition with a projected gradient method. Simulations results demonstrate how backhaul has a significant impact on total power consumption and the effectiveness of the studied schemes. In addition, the results demonstrate that the proposed iterative resource allocation algorithm converges within a small number of iterations and illustrate the fundamental tradeoffs between SE and EE. Our analytical results shed light on future “green” network planning in advanced OFDMA wireless systems like those envisioned for a fifth-generation (5G) system.
|Pages (from-to)||4670 - 4683|
|Number of pages||14|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology|
|Publication status||Published - Oct 2015|