Acidogenic fermentation can be used to produce hydrogen from a range of biomass sources. The effluent from this process can be utilised in a number of biological processes enabling further recovery of energy from the biomass. In this review a number of candidate technologies are assessed including conventional methanogenic anaerobic digestion, dark fermentative hydrogen production, photo-fermentation, and bioelectrochemical systems. The principles, benefits and challenges associated with integrating these technologies are discussed, with particular emphasis on integration with fermentative hydrogen production, and the current state of integrative development is presented. The various system configurations for potential integrations presented here may simultaneously permit an increase in the conversion efficiency of biomass to energy, improved adaptability to varying operating conditions, and improved stability. Such integration, while increasing system complexity, may mean that these bioprocesses could be deployed in a wider range of scenarios and be used with a greater range of substrates.
- fermentative biohydrogen
- photo fermentation