This study presents a comprehensive power management system (PMS) for tracking the maximum power point (MPP) and harvesting energy from up to five microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The harvested energy powers the electronics, with backup options available if needed. The PMS is capable of regulating the output voltage, allowing it to be increased up to 3.3 V using a hysteresis-based control approach. The MPP for each MFC is determined using a variable step size incremental conductance algorithm, regulating the duty cycle of dedicated synchronous boost converters without requiring additional electronic components. The PMS efficiency depends on the target output voltage and MFCs' power output characteristics. Efficiencies up to 87% are achieved by combining the boost converters' outputs. The PMS conserves energy by disabling idle electronic components, with PMS power consumption below 5.8 mW at 3 .3 V output. The PMS is tested with simulated and real tubular MFCs under various conditions.
- Microbial fuel cells
- Maximum power point tracking
- Power management system
- Energy harvesting
- Series and parallel connection