Dynamic and Static Vessel Malperfusion as a Consequence of Acute Type B Aortic Dissection

Mohamad Bashir, Matti Jubouri, Richard D White, Sven Zcp Tan, Damian M Bailey, Ian M Williams

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Abstract

Acute type B aortic dissection (TBAD) is relatively uncommon with an estimated incidence of up to 8 cases per 100,000 individuals annually. It can be classified based on presenting clinical and radiological features into complicated and uncomplicated. Following the initial tear, the direction and extent of the dissection flap is unpredictable, possibly propagating proximally or distally. One consequence of a dissection flap is the occurrence of organ malperfusion by occlusion of the origin of the branch vessel. The 2 types of malperfusion in TBAD are static and dynamic, with the latter being the more common mechanism. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has demonstrated its high safety and efficacy when used for TBAD and subsequent malperfusion. This original study specifically examines patients diagnosed with acute TBAD and treated with TEVAR at a single vascular unit, focusing on those presenting with organ malperfusion. Over 16 years, 28 TBAD patients were admitted to a single center and treated using TEVAR. After clinical examination, all patients underwent computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen/pelvis to confirm the diagnosis and classify the extent of the dissection proximally and distally. Once diagnosed, patients were transferred to the high dependency unit and started on blood pressure medication. Subsequent computed tomography scans were performed to classify patients, after which TEVAR was performed. Twenty five patients underwent TEVAR for TBAD, of which 8 (32%) had symptoms of organ malperfusion. The majority of cases presented with hypertension (89%), describing a sudden onset of upper/midthoracic pain. The origin of the left subclavian artery was occluded in 14 (56%) patients with 9 (64%) needing an extra-anatomical bypass. There was only a single mortality due to a posterior circulation stroke 2 days after TEVAR. Median (range) length of coverage of thoracic aorta by the stent-graft was 33 (15-35) cm. The true lumen (TL) perfused the celiac artery in 6/8 malperfusion patients, superior mesenteric artery in 7/8, right renal artery in 6/8, and, conversely, left renal artery in only 2/8. Complicated TBADs behave in an unpredictable manner as it seems the propagating intimal flap invariably maintains vital organ perfusion via the TL. Maintenance of abdominal vessels perfusion from the TL following TEVAR is vital to ensuring optimal results. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.]
Original languageEnglish
JournalAnnals of Vascular Surgery
Volume00
Issue number00
Early online date5 Dec 2022
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 5 Dec 2022

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