Cross-cultural validation of the Mature Happiness Scale-Revised: Inner harmony, PERMA, and psychological inflexibility

David F. Carreno, Nikolett Eisenbeck, W. James Greville, Paul T. P. Wong

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    The present study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Mature Happiness Scale, a measure focused on inner harmony. According to the mature happiness theory, inner harmony is achieved when a person can live in balance between both positive and negative aspects of their life. A total sample of 2,130 participants from five countries (Canada: n = 390, United States: n = 223, United Kingdom: n = 512, Spain: n = 724, and Hungary: n = 281) responded to an online survey including the original Mature Happiness Scale, the PERMA-Profiler, and the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded a one-factor solution with seven positive items (non-reversed). We called this version of the questionnaire the Mature Happiness Scale-Revised (MHS-R). Measurement invariance was found across countries, age groups, gender, and mental disorder diagnosis. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were high. Older people, males, and people non-diagnosed with a mental disorder scored higher in mature happiness than their counterparts. MHS-R scores were positively associated with all well-being subscales of the PERMA-Profiler, especially with positive emotions and meaning in life. In addition, MHS-R scores were negatively related to negative affect, loneliness, inner conflict, and psychological inflexibility. The validity evidence collected in this paper supports the use of the MHS-R cross-culturally to reliably measure harmony-focused well-being among the adult population. With its holistic approach, the MHS-R may also be a useful complement to other well-being measures, particularly to better predict mental health problems.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalJournal of Happiness Studies
    Publication statusSubmitted - 22 Jun 2021


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