Compact and Highly Sensitive Bended Microwave Liquid Sensor Based on a Metamaterial Complementary Split-Ring Resonator

Said Mosbah, Chemseddine Zebiri, Djamel Sayad, Issa Elfergani*, Mohamed Lamine Bouknia, Samira Mekki, Rami Zegadi, Merih Palandoken, Jonathan Rodriguez, Raed A. Abd-Alhameed

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
12 Downloads (Pure)


In this paper, we present the design of a compact and highly sensitive microwave sensor based on a metamaterial complementary split-ring resonator (CSRR), for liquid characterization at microwave frequencies. The design consists of a two-port microstrip-fed rectangular patch resonating structure printed on a 20 × 28 mm2 Roger RO3035 substrate with a thickness of 0.75 mm, a relative permittivity of 3.5, and a loss tangent of 0.0015. A CSRR is etched on the ground plane for the purpose of sensor miniaturization. The investigated liquid sample is put in a capillary glass tube lying parallel to the surface of the sensor. The parallel placement of the liquid test tube makes the design twice as efficient as a normal one in terms of sensitivity and Q factor. By bending the proposed structure, further enhancements of the sensor design can be obtained. These changes result in a shift in the resonant frequency and Q factor of the sensor. Hence, we could improve the sensitivity 10-fold compared to the flat structure. Subsequently, two configurations of sensors were designed and tested using CST simulation software, validated using HFSS simulation software, and compared to structures available in the literature, obtaining good agreement. A prototype of the flat configuration was fabricated and experimentally tested. Simulation results were found to be in good agreement with the experiments. The proposed devices exhibit the advantage of exploring multiple rapid and easy measurements using different test tubes, making the measurement faster, easier, and more cost-effective; therefore, the proposed high-sensitivity sensors are ideal candidates for various sensing applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2144
Number of pages16
JournalApplied Sciences
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 18 Feb 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Bended
  • Complementary split-ring resonator
  • Highly sensitive
  • Microwave sensors
  • Q factor
  • Resonant frequency


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