Bioterrorism and Health Security Intelligence: Legal Approaches for Countering Non-State Actors in Pandemics

Bhupinder Singh*, Komal Vig, Christian Kaunert

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The convergence of bioterrorism threats and pandemic risks has prompted a multidisciplinary strategy to preserve public health in an increasingly linked and vulnerable world. Both pandemics and bioterrorism pose existential dangers to people's health, security, and societal stability. They include the deliberate release of biological agents intended to inflict harm. To identify potential outbreaks and unique disease transmission patterns, health security intelligence integrates epidemiological data, monitoring systems, and information-sharing methods. Threats from bioterrorism and pandemics must be prevented and controlled holistically using socio-legal strategies and heath security intelligence. These “socio-legal strategies involve” using legal frameworks and regulations in conjunction with social and community-based efforts to prevent, respond to, or mitigate the impact of bioterrorism incidents. Infectious diseases may be used for harmful objectives by non-state actors, such as terrorist groups and rogue individuals, creating a complex and dynamic danger landscape. With an emphasis on bioterrorism, this article explores the complex difficulties surrounding the legal aspects of combating non-state actors in the context of pandemics. The paper highlights the value of global cooperation, data harmonization, and prompt communication in facilitating proactive and efficient actions. The convergence of these hazards emphasizes the necessity for a coordinated strategy that uses socio-legal and health security intelligence to lessen their impact. This paper examines the complex interactions between bioterrorism, health security intelligence, and socio-legal tactics, highlighting how they might work together to avoid, manage, and combat the serious threats posed by pandemics and bioterrorism. The paper explores the legal frameworks and regulations that guide preparedness, response, and recovery efforts. It examines the role of international agreements, national legislation, and ethical considerations in shaping a comprehensive response strategy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-64
JournalJournal of European and American Intelligence Studies
Issue number00
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2023


  • Bioterrorism
  • Health Security
  • Legal Approaches
  • Non-State Actors


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