This study is to examine the similarities and differences between the CNAA in the U.K. and Japans National Institution for Academic Degrees (NIAD). In the U.K., CNAA was established in 1964 to authorize polytechnics as institutions which could award academic degrees. In Japan, the NIAD was established in 1991 as an assessment institution which approved programmes provided by higher education institutions other than universities and awarded academic degrees. NIAD is a product of the reform in the higher education system of Japan to develop lifelong learning and to diversify institutions of higher learning.
- degree conferment