Cerebral autoregulation refers to the mechanisms that act to keep cerebral blood flow (CBF) constant during changes in blood pressure. The mechanisms of cerebral autoregulation, especially in humans, are poorly understood but are undoubtedly multifactorial and likely reflect many redundant pathways that potentially differ between species. Whether sympathetic nervous activity influences CBF and/or cerebral autoregulation in humans remains controversial. Following a brief introduction to cerebral autoregulation, this review highlights the likely reasons behind the controversy of the neural control of cerebral autoregulation. Finally, suggestions are provided for further studies to improve the understanding of the neural control of CBF regulation.