Hamstring strain injury (HSI) is a common and costly injury in many sports such as the various professional football codes. Most HSIs have been reported to occur during high intensity sprinting actions. This observation has led to the suggestion that a link between sprinting biomechanics and HSIs may exist. The aim of this literature review was to evaluate the available scientific evidence underpinning the potential link between sprinting biomechanics and HSIs. A structured search of the literature was completed followed by a risk of bias assessment. A total of eighteen studies were retrieved. Sixteen studies involved retrospective and/or prospective analyses, of which only three were judged to have a low risk of bias. Two other case studies captured data before and after an acute HSI. A range of biomechanical variables have been measured, including ground reaction forces, trunk and lower-limb joint angles, hip and knee joint moments and powers, hamstring muscle–tendon unit stretch, and surface electromyographic activity from various trunk and thigh muscles. Overall, current evidence was unable to provide a clear and nonconflicting perspective on the potential link between sprinting biomechanics and HSIs. Nevertheless, some interesting findings were revealed, which hopefully will stimulate future research on this topic.