The manufacture of steel and Portland cement (PC) consumes enormous raw material resources. The manufacturing processes involved are associated with high-energy consumption, unsightly excavations, especially when left without attention to landscaping, and most negatively exacerbate atmospheric pollution. PC forms the main binder material in concrete, and represents the costliest constituent in concrete and masonry. Therefore, the environmental and economic impact of PC is huge. It is responsible for about 10% of the global human derived carbon dioxide emissions. For these reasons, the possibility of replacing, or minimising usage, of the traditional building and construction materials with low-cost greener materials from nature, industry or agriculture will yield significant benefits, and numerous researches have been undertaken on different waste materials. Research so far in this direction is incomplete and more coverage is required. Pending issues relate to durability, versatility as a building material, so as to resolve issues related with domestic fixtures (shelves etc.), jointing, demolition and/or re-use among others. Most of the major waste and by-product streams have been explored, leaving only marginal and waste materials. This paper explores these issues, with the aim of enhancing the uptake of earth-based raw materials from nature, industry or from agricultural sources.
|Cyhoeddwyd - 20 Hyd 2020