Ammonia losses during swine wastewater treatment were examined using single- and two-chambered microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Ammonia removal was 60% over 5 days for a single-chamber MFC with the cathode exposed to air (air-cathode), versus 69% over 13 days from the anode chamber in a two-chamber MFC with a ferricyanide catholyte. In both types of systems, ammonia losses were accelerated with electricity generation. For the air-cathode system, our results suggest that nitrogen losses during electricity generation were increased due to ammonia volatilization with conversion of ammonium ion to the more volatile ammonia species as a result of an elevated pH near the cathode (where protons are consumed). This loss mechanism was supported by abiotic tests (applied voltage of 1.1 V). In a two-chamber MFC, nitrogen losses were primarily due to ammonium ion diffusion through the membrane connecting the anode and cathode chambers. This loss was higher with electricity generation as the rate of ammonium transport was increased by charge transfer across the membrane. Ammonia was not found to be used as a substrate for electricity generation, as intermittent ammonia injections did not produce power. The ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea was found on the cathode electrode of the single-chamber system, supporting evidence of biological nitrification, but anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were not detected by molecular analyses. It is concluded that ammonia losses from the anode chamber were driven primarily by physical-chemical factors that are increased with electricity generation, although some losses may occur through biological nitrification and denitrification.