Abstract: Introduction: The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) for reasons other than medical treatment, was considered to be restricted to the bodybuilders or professional athletes. A study in 2001, by our research unit, demonstrated a high prevalence of AAS use by recreational gym users. From 106 questionnaires, 53% (56/106) had used AAS within the past year but no females reported using AAS. Methods: The present study was conducted amongst a similar sample of recreational gym users in the South Wales area. Results: From 146 questionnaires, 70% (102/146 individuals) reported AAS use and 7% (10/146 individuals) of respondents were female. Mean age of sample was 33.6 ± 6.7 years and ranged from 15-72 years of age. This research demonstrated an enormous increase in the drug, growth hormone (24%), which had been used to reduce body fat. The demographic and social characteristics of the respondents indicated that AAS users were from differing socioeconomic backgrounds (wealthy and non-wealthy) and did not fall into any specific category (working class, middle class or upper class). Conclusion: In the recreational fitness industry their use would appear to be predominantly for vanity and cosmetic reasons.